District 5 of the Oregon State Senate comprises all of Lincoln County on the central Oregon Coast, as well as parts of Tillamook, Yamhill, Polk, Lane, Douglas, and Coos counties. It is currently represented by Democrat Arnie Roblan of Coos Bay. District boundaries have changed over time, therefore, senators before 2013 may not represent the same constituency as today. From 1993 until 2003, the district covered central Washington County, and from 2003 until 2013 it covered a slightly different area on the Oregon coast.
Rostraureum tropicale is a species of fungus from genus Rostraureum that is found in Ecuador. Rostraureum tropicale is a pathogen of Terminalia ivorensis and causes basal stem cankers on dying trees. The fungus is distributed in the lowland tropics of Ecuador. Hosts include Terminalia ivorensis and Terminalia superba (both in family Combretaceae of the Myrtales). Morphologically, Rostraureum tropicale has characteristics similar to those for Cryphonectria, Endothia and Chrysoporthe, but appears to be superficially closest to Cryphonectria longirostris.
Rostraureum tropicale can be distinguished from Endothia, Cryphonectria and Chrysoporthe by the observation that perithecial necks are not embedded in well-developed stromatic tissue. Additionally, it can be distinguished from Chrysoporthe by the presence of orange perithecial necks instead of fuscous-black necks. Rostraureum tropicale is phylogenetically most closely related to species of Endothia, based on ribosomal (ITS) and β-tubulin DNA sequences.
Rostraureum tropicale is pathogenic towards Terminalia ivorensis and a closely related host, Terminalia superba, causing well-developed stem cankers within six weeks of inoculation. It is also more pathogenic than Chrysoporthe cubensis, which causes smaller lesions on Terminalia superba. However, C. cubensis is not usually a pathogen of trees in the Combretaceae. AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Peoples (formerly AlterNative: An International Journal of Indigenous Scholarship) is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by Ngā Pae o te Māramatanga, New Zealand’s Indigenous Centre of Research Excellence (University of Auckland).
Allostatic load is “the wear and tear on the body” that accumulates as an individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress. It represents the physiological consequences of chronic exposure to fluctuating or heightened neural or neuroendocrine response that results from repeated or chronic stress. The term was coined by McEwen and Stellar in 1993. The regulatory model of allostasis claims that the brain’s primary role as an organ is the predictive regulation of internal sensations.
Allostatic load is generally measured through a composite index of indicators of cumulative strain on several organs and tissues, primarily biomarkers associated with the neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, immune and metabolic systems. Indices of allostatic load are diverse across studies and are frequently assessed differently, using different biomarkers and different methods of assembling an allostatic load index. Allostatic load is not unique to humans and may be used to evaluate the physiological effects of chronic or frequent stress in non-human primates as well.
Stress hormones such as epinephrine and cortisol in combination with other stress-mediating physiological agents such as increased myocardial workload, decreased smooth muscle tone in the gastrointestinal tract, and increased coagulation effects have protective and adaptive benefits in the short term, yet can accelerate pathophysiology when they are overproduced or mismanaged; this kind of stress can cause hypertension and lead to heart disease. Constant or even irregular exposure to these hormones can eventually induce illnesses and weaken the body’s immune system.
Adaptation in the face of stressful situations and stimuli involves activation of neural, neuroendocrine and neuroendocrine-immune mechanisms. This adaptation has been called “allostasis” or “maintaining stability through change”, which is an essential component of maintaining homeostasis. The main downstream hormones produced as a result of the stress response, cortisol and epinephrine (adrenaline), have beneficial effects on the body that can become detrimental with excessive activation, such as increased blood pressure and heart rate.
The physiological responses involved in the stress response are widely considered adaptive as they are effective at responding to acute threats to survival across many species. However, in environments of chronic or frequent activation of the stress response, such as exposure to violence or trauma, poverty, war, hypoxia, or low rank in a social hierarchy, the stress response constantly disrupts homeostasis resulting in overexertion of physiological systems.